I wonder how many students of the 1964 – 68 class of Olivet Baptist High School, Oyo, remember Lawson Oviaghele and Ganiyu Jawando. Are you listening, Oladunjoye Rusewe, Gbenja Ige, Abayomi Adepoju and G.R.A Akande? Lawson Oviaghele and Ganiyu Jawando were among the best footballers of Olivet’s First Eleven team which was indomitable in the Western Region of Nigeria. Today, almost 40 year after they parted ways from us, I remember them as vividly as I did in the 1960s whenever I hear of typhoid fever or salmonella typhi, the bacteria which caused it.
Lawson Oviaghele died in his prime, a schoolboy victim of this intestinal disease which may become organ afflicted or systemic, that is involving organs or systems of the body. Ganiyu Jawando escaped death by a hairs breadth. Theirs was the worst cases of typhoid attacks which some students picked up, I believe in Iwo Town, when the school went to play a friendly with the sister Baptist school there. For some weeks, Lawson Oviaghele and Ganiyu Jawando lay at the Oyo General Hospital. They received good care in the hands of Mrs. Scoth, who, I believe, was a matron. She was motherly. Two of her children, Kobna and Margaret, were fellow students at Olivet. Despite the care they got, the cases of Lawson Oviaghele and Ganiyu Jawando deteriorated fast that the general hospital after had to refer them to the university College Hospital Ibadan and, according to grapevine stories stores which filtered to Olivet, both boys received several pints of blood, but their bodies rejected much of the transfusion. Eventually, Lawson Oviaghele died. Ganiyu Jawando survived miraculously, but didn’t return to school to play football. A brilliant chap, he passed the “Concession” examination of the University of Ibadan which shortened his degree programme from five years to four.
May his paths be blessed, wherever he is. He was the human Anatomy Physiology and hygiene (now called Heath Science) of the 1964 – 68 Olivet class. He taught to the last detail, his language was picturesqueue, no student wished to miss his class. I will ever remember three of the diseases he taught us… Cholera, typhoid and diarrhea. He said Cholera killed Alexander the Great of the Greek Empire, and Wilburight, inventor of the aero plane among other prominent people worldwide. He said, also, that Salmonella typhi could make a rag of the intestine. That means it could perforate it and cause the leakage of blood and fecal matter into body cavity. This may cause sepsis or even death. Any wonder typhoid fever took the life of Lawson Oviaghele and almost killed Ganiyu Jawando.
This diseases kills many people in Nigeria every year. The attacks are often misdiagnosed as malaria fever until it is almost too late to tackle. This is why many doctors do not like to take chances. From the first consultation, they send their patients to diagnostic laboratories for tests to confirm or rule out typhoid fever. This test is one of the commonest tests in these labs. This is not surprising because, in the Nigeria environment, many people are exposed to various causes of typhoid fever which are not readily available in other countries. Water is a common infectious agent. Many municipal water supply pipes are broken, eposing drinkable water to microforms in the earth. Before the advents of “pure” (sachet water), drinking water in the bukaterias (make shift park canteens) where many people still eat, came from wells or leaking pipes, or they were fetched from pure tape in unclean containers by water sellers. Even where motor tankers brought the water, the tanks may not have been cleaned in a long, long while. These giant plastic reservoir overhead or underground tanks at home, too, are hardly cleaned. I do not remember cleaning mine in the last 10 years since they were installed. Somehow, many people trust sachet water. But many of the brands are not covered by certification of the food and drugs regulatory body.
Where they are, they are not regularly inspected for compliance with production rules. The food we eat is not safe either. As a young man, I stopped buying moin moin (bean cake) from the woman who made it in the next street when I sighted her child defecating in the open near her mother’s cooking basin. The mother came out from the room to attend to her child outdoor where she was cooking the bean cake. I was standing by the fire place, waiting to be attended to. She picked a bowl, dipped it into a bucket of water nearby. Running the water on the child’s buttocks, she employed the other hand to clean poop from her buttocks. Then, she rinsed her hands with the remainder of the water, and was now ready to serve me. I bought the moin moin out of courtesy, but threw them away once out of sight and never patronized her again. Many of us will not eat out if we know the conditions under which the cooking took place. Have you ever watched pounded yam being made on a muter? The men and women who do the pounding sweat profusely, and there’s no way their sweat doesn’t get into the mortar.
As Mr. S.O Kolade taught my fourth form Health Science class, Salmonella typhi is a gram – negative bacterium which causes systemic infections. The body reacts to it by, among other steps, raising its temperature to about 104 degrees Fahrenheit, against a normal average of about 98.6 degree Fahrenheit. The bacterium causes inflammation and pain in the intestine as it attacks it, sometimes even perforating it with fatal consequences. It cause pain in the joints or generalized pain all over body. If the bacterium escapes into the bloodstream, it may find its way into choice organs, infect them as well, causing a systemic disorder which may lead to death. As the website Microbewiki Kenyon Education teaches us today:
“The two species of Salmonella are Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Salmonella enterica is the type species and is further divided into six such species that include over 2,500 cerovars. The species we hear most about is Salmonella, which is estimated by the world Health Organization (WHO) to effect over 17 million people worldwide each year. Salmonella typhimurium and Salmorella typhi are two of over 2,500 types of Salmonella enterica.
Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella typhi are closely related. However, there are distinct differences in the type and infections severity of diseases they both cause. This difference in infections is a result of differences in their genetic make – up. Salmonella typhimurium can cause infections in human and animals. It is often associated with animals and animal’s products that are eaten. Salmorella typhimurium can be transferred to humans through raw, undercooked infected food, egg, meat and in paultry, Salmonella typhimurium is passed from one bird to bird, most community through their droppings. When the poultry are slaughter for their meat, the Salmorella bacteria are transferred from their gut to the meat, and can be passed from the birds ovaries to their eggs. Salmorella typhimurium causes gastroenteritis (inflammation of the gut) leading to diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and abdominal cramps. These symptoms may last up to seven days. People infected by Salmorella typhimurium rarely require antibiotics for them or hospitalization. However, antibiotics or other treatment may be needed if an individual is unable to fight off the infections themselves due to an underlying condition, such as a compromised immune system.
- Salmorella typhi can only infect humans
- It causes typhoid fever
- It is common in developing countries
- The symptoms of typhoid fever includes fever, weakness, stomach pain, headache or loss of appetite.
- Without prompt treatment, salmonella typhi infection can lead to liver damage, inflammation of the heart, holes in the gut, and internal bleeding.
If appropriate treatment is not given, typhoid fever is fatal in up to 20- percent of affected individual.
- People with typhoid fever can carry the salmonella typhi their blood and intestines and spread the bacteria in their faces.”
Some simple cures
The destructiveness of typhoid fever never the less, it succumbs to many simple home cure remedies. These have anti-microbial effects. I am tempted to believe that it is because some people consume them regularly in their diets that they appear never to come down with typhoid fever, however exposed to Salmonella typhi that they may be. I confess to being one of the sacred cows.
Alhaji Isiaka Tijani, of Oko Oba GRA scheme 1 informed me that when no medicine seemed to help his son, the saving grace was a combination of Bongo tea and lime. All symptoms literally disappeared overnight, he said. Mrs. Bukola Afeez, of Budget Travels, Lagos, said her typhoid attack disappeared when she took a recipe prepared by her husband, Oyeniyi, from native Ogbomosho, one of the homelands of herbs in Nigeria. The recipe was Sandpaper leaves, bamboo leaves, juice extract of corn (omi didun… in Yoruba) the Ogbomosho’s call omi didun, omi kikan. Some people rely on the sap of pawpaw fruit, or the sap of the tree bark or of the seeds. There is something common to them all that may kill Salmonella typhi bacterium. That common denominator is Papain. This is a protein – digesting enzyme like Bromelain found in the peel or stem of the pineapple. Papain chemically resembles Pepsin, the protein – digesting enzymes found in the human stomach where its production is facilitated by the right amount of hydro chloric acid (about 0.05 percent concentration). Papain breaks down or digests any protein that i.e not produced by the body. In the body, there are two types of protein, the endogenous protein (made by the body), and exogenous brought in from outside. All germs, like Salmonella typhi, are exogenous proteins and are subject to destruction by Papain. In many therapies, Papain and Bromelain are employed as systemic enzymes. These are chemical substances deployed by the immune system to fight invading germs. This knowledge probably informs the concortion of herbs made by some people to tackle typhoid fever. To make this concortion, pawpaw (papaya) fruit is chopped into bit and added to the peel and juice of lime and lemon, and the peel of pineapple and boiled. The infusion is served and Drunk. It has helped the users to achieve varying degrees of success in typhoid addition therapy.
To this, or without it, I would rather go for proprietary Papain and Bromelain enzyme formulas. Typhoid is too serious a condition to punch or, with kid gloves as shown. It may damage the joints, muscles, the heart and the liver. To make these more effective good carriers of herbal warhead may be required. Here comes Alligator pepper. An antioxidant, aphrodisiac, energizer, metabolism stimulant, anti-pain and anti-microbial in its own right, it has ably supported, as an adjunct recipe, many protocols to dissolve tumours and uterine fibroids, and should help typhoid fever therapy protocols as well.
Many people pay glowing tribute to Lemon grass, the traditional anti-malarial leaf tea. I will blow the trumpet louder for Lemon grass Oil and Garlic Oil. Ditto Oregano Oil What about Slippery elm? This monopoly saccharide which soothes the damage of digestives ulcers system should also wrap up and mop up Salmonella typhi bacteria and heal the injuries they cause in the intestine.
NOW, we come to the realm of the “Hercules” class fighters of germs and diseased. I believe that, if one habitually takes some of them with the diet every day, one is unlikely to experience intolerable colonization of the intestine and organs by these germs. For example, I learned a long time ago that eating one or two Bitter kolas with a meal can protect one against germs or their eggs wich are present in most foods eaten, especially if an egg, for example, has been infected with Salmonella typhi bacteria. Bitter kola is always in my pocket. For one may never know when one may have to eat out, particularly when “off taste” fish or meat or infected vegetable will be involved. Food sellers never wish to lose money or throw away damaged food. In any case, do they not buy rotten pepper, because, it is cheap, for the sauce? Propolis is another class of natural antibiotic that may offer formidable protection against Salmonella typhi and other germs. It is that special part of honey that the honey bee employe to paint their hives. This Propolis coat of painting makes the hives impregnable for germs. It is also the reason honey never goes bad. Honey as old as over 300 years have been found, chemically unchanged, in the tombs of Egyptian mumies where it is used to preserve these corpses. When I had gum problems characterized by aches and gum boils and nothing seemed to help, I went for Propolis tablets. Kasly, a network marketing company, used to sell a Propolis Syrup spray, which was effective for gum, teeth and upper respiratory tract infections. In the absence of Propolis tablets and capsules, the syrup may be added to water in a glass, stirred and drunk on empty stomach or over meals. Diatomacues, otherwise called Diatomite, Diatom or simply DE is obtained from the fossils of marine plants and endowed with a lot of Silica. The raw form is used for pest control, the edible form is used in human health, to, among other uses, control high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, improve blood and tissue alkalinity, break tumours and fight disease germs. It has uses as an abrasive in toothpastes, as filter for water, beer and wine spray in sanely covered or open shoes, skin cleaning and bath soaps. It is better than arm pit roll-ons when used as a deodorant powder there and for athlete’s foot. Composed of about 85 percent Silica, it Diatom is an excellent source of this trace mineral which is needed by tendons cartilage, blood vessels, bones and the heart, liver and lungs, to mention a few places where it is found in the body.
According to globalhealingcenter “Diatomaceus Earth acts as a mild abrasive topically as well as internally. It can help to remove intestinal invaders and other harmful organisms from the digestive tract. As an internal cleanser, Diatomaceus Earth may aid cleansing by supporting regularity and assist in removing toxic metals. Some studies have shown Diatomaceus Earth to be very successful in ridding animals of harmful organisms.”
The barn of Mother Nature is in inexhaustible. There is Aloe Vera, there is Grape Seed extract, there is Oregano, there is Pau d’Aro, there is Golden Seal root, my favorite antibiotic, there is Mango Seed Extract and, of course Orange Peel powder.
According to mdidea:“Golden Seal root has been used for infections in the mouth, lungs, intestines and urinary system. It has also been used for swelling (inflammation), indigestion, cold and flu symptoms, menstrual disorders gall bladder inflammation and liver disease (cirrhosis). Golden seal root is one of the most popular herbs sold on the American market, and has recently gained a reputation as an herbal antibiotic and immune system enhancer. American Indians used Golden Seal as a medication for inflammatory internal conditions such as respiratory, digestive, and genito-urinary tract inflammation induced by allergy or infection… it was not until 1798 that its medicinal virtues began to attract attention. From then on, its reputation as a powerful healing herb spread, both in England and America by about 1850, it had become an important article of commerce. It was popularly used as a bitter stomach digestive (to help stimulate digestion and improve appetite), to treat akin inflammation, and those of the eyes such as conjunctivitis. It was also used for inflammation of the mucus membrane of the throat and digestive system. Its traditional uses include the treatment of peptic ulcer, gastritis, dyspepsia and colitis. It is said to stimulate appetite and generally has a toning effect on the whole body.”
Ladies and gentlemen, I have witnessed the healing of vaginal infections (by yeast, fungi, candida or trichomonas etc.) by Golden Seal Root and have no doubt that it can quash Salmonella typhi as well. So, sufferers from this disease need not suffer or have their bodies damaged. Some have recurrence over many years. Some are maimed. Yet the solution to typhoid fever is abundant in Nature. In their days, Oviaghele and Ganiyu Jawando had no access to Mother Nature as we do today. Our guilt would be multiple if Salmonella typhi can still disarrange us.